Tag Archive for Stuxnet

Internet of Things

Internet of ThingsOnce upon a time, there was a time when “using the Internet” always meant using a computer. Today getting on the intertubes is an expected feature for many devices. The next digital frontier is the physical world, where the “Internet of Things.” The Internet of Things will bring online ability to objects.

Twine Sensor Connects Household Objects to the Internet

Twine Tested.com notes a Kickstarter project from two MIT Media Lab alums who developed a way to make the Internet of Things more available. A small, durable “Twine” sensor listens to its environment and reports back over Wi-Fi. The creators hope their new product will let regular users, even those without programming knowledge, digitally manage their surroundings.

A basic Twine unit senses temperature and motion, but other options like moisture detection, a magnetic switch, and more can be added using a breakout board. The various sensors and built-in Wi-Fi can be powered by either a mini-USB connection or two AAA batteries, which will keep it running for months. Twine readings get wirelessly loaded into the appropriately named Spool web app, where users can set simple if-then triggers that create SMS messages, tweets, emails, or specially configured HTTP requests.

For a donation of $99 or more will get you a basic unit when they ship in March.

THE SMART FRRRIDGE. Chilly Forecast for Internet Frrridge

Internet FridgeThe Smart Frrridge is a new version of the familiar kitchen apparatus. According to Medienturn the new fridge comes with a built-in computer that can be connected to the internet. It is one of a growing class known as “internet appliances” that include not only smart phones, but also web-enabled versions of typical household appliances.

The refrigerator keeps an eye on the food in it by using RFID technology, a digital camera and image processing. These technologies allow the fridge to keep track of whats in it, how long has this been there, should it be trashed?

To keep in contact with the Smart Frrridge all you have to do is to pick up your mobile phone and call. It will be able to suggest a menu that uses the foods inside, and generate a shopping list of the missing ingredients and place the order online.

The Smart Frrridge cab also be used to watch television, listen to music, to take a photograph, save it to an album, or post it to a website, or send it to an email recipient. The comes with a docking station you can just dock in your Apple (AAPL) iPod or iPhone and start using all your favorite cooking apps.

SCADA: How Big a Threat?

Cyber attackerThere are reports of two recent cyber attacks on critical infrastructure in the US. Threatpost says the hacker who compromised the water infrastructure for South Houston, TX, said the district used a three-letter password, making it easy to break in.

There are also reports that a cyber attack destroyed a water pump belonging to a Springfield, IL water utility. There are mixed reports that an attacker gained unauthorized access to that company’s industrial control system.

According to DailyWireless, Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) software monitors and controls various industrial processes, some of which are considered critical infrastructure.

Researchers have warned about attacks on critical infrastructure for some time, but warnings became reality after a highly complicated computer worm, Stuxnet, attacked and destroyed centrifuges at a uranium enrichment facility in Iran.

German cybersecurity expert Ralph Langner found Stuxnet, the most advanced worm he had ever seen. The cybersecurity expert warns that U.S. utility companies are not ready to deal with the threat.

In a TED Talk Langner stated that, “The leading force behind Stuxnet is the cyber superpower – there is only one; and that’s the United States.”

In a recent speech at the Brookings Institution, he also made the bigger point that having developed Stuxnet as a computer weapon, the United States has in effect introduced it into the world’s cyber-arsenal.

New NIST Report Sheds Some Light On Security Of The Smart Grid

NIST DarkReading reports the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released a report (PDF) by the Cyber Security Coordination Task Group. The report from the Task Group which heads up the security strategy and architecture for the nation’s smart power grid includes risk assessment, security priorities, as well as privacy issues.

The smart grid makes the electrical power grid a two-way flow of data and electricity allows consumers to remotely monitor their power usage in real-time to help conserve energy and save money. DarkReading says researchers have raised red flags about the security of the smart grid. Some have already poked holes in the grid, including IOActive researcher Mike Davis, found multiple vulnerabilities in smart meters, including devices that don’t use encryption nor do they authenticate users when updating software. He who was able to execute buffer overflow attacks and unleash rootkits on smart meters.

Tony Flick, a smart grid expert with FYRM Associates, at Black Hat USA talked (PDF) about his worries over utilities “self-policing” their implementations of the security framework. “This is history repeating itself,” Mr. Flick said in an interview with DarkReading.

According to DarkReading, the report recommends smart grid vendors carry out some pretty basic security practices:

  • Audit personally identifiable information (PII) data access and changes;
  • Specify the purpose for collecting, using, retaining, and sharing PII;
  • Collect only PII data that’s needed;
  • Anonymize PII data where possible and keep it only as long as necessary;
  • Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) must set up protections against denial-of-service (DoS) attacks;
  • Network perimeter devices should filter certain types of packets to protect devices on an organization’s internal network from being directly affected by denial-of-service attacks;
  • The AMI system should use redundancy or excess capacity to reduce the impact of a DoS;
  • AMI components accessible to the public, must be in separate subnetworks with separate physical network interfaces;
  • The AMI system shall deny network traffic by default and allows network traffic by exception;
  • Consumers’ access to smart grid meters be limited. Authorization and access levels need to be carefully considered.

 

40 Years of Malware – Part 4

2011 marks the 40th anniversary of the computer virus. Help Net Security notes that over the last four decades, malware instances have grown from 1,300 in 1990, to 50,000 in 2000, to over 200 million in 2010. Fortinet (FTNT) marks this dubious milestone with an article which counts down some of the malware evolution low-lights. The Sunnyvale,CA network security firm says that viruses evolved from an academic proof of concepts, to geek pranks which have evolved into cybercriminal tools. By 2005, the virus scene had been monetized, and almost all viruses developed for the sole purpose of making money via more or less complex business models. According to FortiGuard Labs, the most significant computer viruses over the last 40 years are:

- See Part 1 Here  - See Part 2 Here  – See Part 3 Here  – See Part 4 Here

Storm2007 – By 2007, Botnets have infected millions world-wide using Zombie systems send spam to generate Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, compromise passwords and data. By 2007 cybercriminals had developed a lucrative business models they were protecting. The attackers became more concerned about protecting their zombie computers. Until 2007, botnets lacked robustness, by neutralizing its unique Control Center (PDF), a botnet could be taken down, because Zombies didn’t have anyone to report to (and take commands from) anymore. The Storm botnet was the first to feature a peer-to-peer architecture (PDF) to decentralize its command and control functions. At the peak of the outbreak, the Storm Botnet was more powerful than many supercomputers and accounted for 8% of all malware running in the world according to FortiGuard.

Koobface2008Koobface (an anagram for Facebook) spreads by pretending to be the infected user on social networks, prompting friends to download an update to their Flash player to view a video. The update is a copy of the virus. Once infected, users would serve as both vectors of infection for other social network contacts and as human robots to solve CAPTCHA challenges for cyber-criminals, among other things. Koobface is also the first botnet to recruit its Zombie computers across multiple social networks (Facebook, MySpace, hi5, Bebo, Friendster, etc). FortiGuard estimates that over 500,000 Koobface zombies are online at the same time.

Conficker2009Conficker (aka Downadup) is a particularly sophisticated and long-lived virus, as it’s both a worm, much like Sasser, and an ultra-resilient botnet, which download destructive code from a random Internet servers. (We still see it pop-up from time to time at work). Conficker targeted the Microsoft Windows OS and used Windows flaws and Dictionary attacks on admin passwords to crack machines and link them to a computer under the control of the attacker. Conficker’s weakness is its propagation algorithm is poorly calibrated, causing it to be discovered more often according to Fortinet. In 2009 some networks were so saturated by Conficker, that it caused planes to be grounded, hospitals and military bases were impacted. Conficker infected bout 7 million systems worldwide.

Advanced Persistent ThreatAdvanced Persistent Threat (aka APT, Operation Aurora) was a cyber attack which began in mid-2009 and continued through December 2009. The attack was first publicly disclosed by Google (GOOG) on January 12, 2010, in a blog post. In the blog post, Google said the attack originated in China and were both sophisticated and well resourced and consistent with an advanced persistent threat attack. According to Wikipedia the attack also included Adobe (ADBE), Dow Chemical (DOW), Juniper Networks (JNPR),Morgan Stanley (MS), Northrop Grumman,(NOC), Rackspace (RAX), Symantec (SYMC) and Yahoo (YHOO).  There is speculation that the primary goal of the attack was to gain access to and potentially change source code repositories at these high-tech, security and defense contractor companies.

The definition of an Advanced Persistent Threat depends on who you ask, Greg Hoglund, CEO at HBGary told Network World an Advanced Persistent Threat is a nice way for the Air Force and DoD to not have to keep saying “Chinese state-sponsored threat.” He says,” APT is “the Chinese government’s state-sponsored espionage that’s been going on for 20 years,” Mr. Hoglund told Network World.

Stuxnet USB2010 - Stuxnet‘s discovery in September 2010 ushered in the era of cyber war. According to most threat researchers today, only governments have the necessary resources to design and implement a virus of such complexity.Stuxnet is the first piece of malware specifically designed to sabotage nuclear power plants. It can be regarded as the first advanced tool of cyber-warfare. Stuxnet was almost certainly a joint U.S. / Israeli creation for damaging the Iranian nuclear weapons program, which it did, by destroying a thousand centrifuges used for uranium enrichment.

To spread, Stuxnet exploited several critical vulnerabilities in Microsoft (MSFT) Windows, which, until then, were unknown, including one guaranteeing its execution when inserting an infected USB key into the target system, even if a systems autorun capabilities were disabled. From the infected system, Stuxnet was then able to spread into an internal network, until it reached its target: a Siemens industrial software system that run Iran’s Bushehr nuclear reactor and most likely intended to destroy or neutralize the industrial system.

Duqu2011Duqu is the current star in the world of malware but, as history shows, that fame will be short-lived. Just like fashion models, modern malware has a lifespan in the media eye of a couple of weeks to a couple of months, tops. They then fade into the shadow of more dangerous and sophisticated tools, according to Help Net Security.

Gary Warner, director of Research in Computer Forensics in the UAB College of Arts and Sciences blogged that Duqu is a data stealing program that shares several blocks of code with Stuxnet. In fact, one of the two pieces of malware we’ve seen that is described as being Duqu is also detected as Stuxnet by some AV vendors.

Symantec disclosed in their report that one of the infections they were analyzing had been infected via a Word Document that exploited the system using a previously unknown 0-day attack.

On November 3, 2011, Microsoft released a Microsoft Security Advisory (2639658) Vulnerability in TrueType Font Parsing Could Allow Elevation of Privilege. The advisory starts with an executive summary which says, in part:

Microsoft is investigating a vulnerability in a Microsoft Windows component, the Win32k TrueType font parsing engine. An attacker who successfully exploited this vulnerability could run arbitrary code in kernel mode. The attacker could then install programs; view, change, or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights. We are aware of targeted attacks that try to use the reported vulnerability; overall, we see low customer impact at this time. This vulnerability is related to the Duqu malware.

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Every couple of years a new malware is crowned the most innovative or dangerous cyber threat in the wild. The anti-malware industry is built on a game of chicken between malware creators and the anti-malware creators, with end users stuck squarely in the middle. As this series of article as shown this game has been going on for 40 years since computers were bigger than many houses and were as user friendly as the DMV.